[4], Morocco has been described as a “liberalized autocracy. Women's eNews. [11] It did this in part by codifying the system of existing patriarchal, kin-based social structures within the newly independent state. Charrad, Mounira M. States and Women's Rights: The Making of Postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. In the end, the civil society associations that lobbied for the reforms had to work within the existing authoritarian system, appealing directly to the king for change rather than working through a democratic political process. Code de la famille au Maroc - Moudawana Texte de loi relatif à la moudawana de la famille au Maroc. In the words of Latifa Jbabdi, the reform achieved "a peaceful revolution for women."[37]. A married couple may negotiate an agreement separate from the marriage contract regarding the management of assets they acquire while married (this does not negate the principle of separate marital property), This page was last edited on 14 November 2020, at 05:28. - 16 septembre, 2020 - 11:24 «A Hoceima», le conservatoire de musique et le Grand théâtre s’apprêtent pour l’ouverture - 23 août, 2020 - 12:10 Ghazalla, Iman. The Mudawana (or Moudawana, Arabic: المدوّنة ‎), short for mudawwanat al-aḥwāl al-shakhṣiyyah (مدونة الأحوال الشخصية), is the personal status code, also known as the family code, in Moroccan law. Although there were calls for reform to the family law in the 1960s and 70s, its religious origins made amending it a challenge, and no serious movement for reform emerged until the 1980s. PDF. Dec 8, 2020 Spread the love Rabat – Women must be equal partners in peacebuilding and conflict prevention efforts, Morocco’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Nasser Bourita said Tuesday. Additionally, the King created a Ministry in Charge of the Condition of Women, Protection of the Family, Childhood and the Disabled to advance gender equality, he consulted with women's rights activists, and he appointed a commission to revise the Moudawana. B elarbi Aicha, 1992, « Mouvement des femmes au Maroc », La société civile au Maroc, Éd. According to the Moroccan Ministry of Justice, in 2008 there were more marriages and slightly fewer divorces in Morocco. [6], In 2004, a new Moudawana was enacted that advanced women's rights and overturned many discriminatory provisions. Cinq années après l’entrée en vigueur du code de la famille, nous l’avons fait, puis, à la commémoration de sa première décennie, nous l’avons relancé en organisant un forum ». There is an intrinsic link between human rights and development. The framework of the debate around the development and reform of the Moudawana, which has become a part of Moroccan political life from the first years of independence to the present day, reflects, in fact, an amplified and recurrent process of the issues surrounding the … "Morocco Country Report." [20] Ibid. August 2020 . [12] Ghazalla, Iman. May 2007. Tennis’ Ace Card: Billie Jean King and the Battle for Women’s Equality, Uniao Nacional dos Estudantes: Generations of Student Struggle for Brazilian Rights, Through the Eye of the Needle: Frances Perkins and the Seamstresses’ Rebellion. [6], According to a 2010 survey, awareness of the reforms varies widely within the Moroccan population, with younger, urban, and educated women far more likely to have heard of the law and have some familiarity with its provisions than women in rural areas, those with less education, and older women. The right to petition for divorce belongs to both men and women, though procedures for reconciliation and mediation are encouraged. "My goal now is to spread the word to some of the most remote areas of Morocco – to illiterate men and women who have little access to objective information about the Moudawana reforms, and little ability to obtain legal assistance," says UAF founder Latifa Jbabdi. [20], In terms of political barriers, some classify the reformed Mudawana as an example of strategic liberalization, typical within certain "liberalized autocracies," that arises out of internal and external pressures but is ultimately limited in the extent of its reforms. All of Morocco's major women's organizations have positioned their work within an Islamic framework in some way, drawing on the work of Islamic scholars to inform their agendas. Association des femmes du Maroc, 2004, L’égalité entre les Hommes et les Femmes, point de vue de la population marocaine, Rapport d’analyse, Rabat. [6] Despite educational campaigns undertaken by various governmental and non-governmental actors (often supported by donor nations such as EU member states), levels of awareness about the reforms remain low, especially in many rural areas, where misinformation about the details of the changes has often filled the knowledge gap. Some critics have even classified the family court system as a lower or "second-class" justice system for women. [9], The proliferation of civil society organizations flourished even more in the 1990s, due in part to King Hassan II's active support for them, which reflected a worldwide trend of civil society promotion. The Moroccan Moudawana is a pioneering law in the Arab world, and has set an example in the region. Generally speaking, the monarchy, Islam, and the territorial integrity of the Moroccan nation are considered to be the nation's three inviolable "sacred institutions." Au Maroc, les mariages polygames gagnent du terrain, et ce, malgré la mise en place de la loi instaurée en 2004. 6 septembre 2020; Islam = Islamisme (10) 22 août 2020; Comment égorger un mouton dans sa salle de bains 12 août 2020; Archives Archives. However, the UAF held debates with these organizations to convince them that the Moudawana reforms were worth fighting for.[32]. This could open the door to an application of older, pre-reform style judicial decisions. 2009. Si Amir je connais la moudawana, mais je ne comprends pas najqt ce que najat atabou lui apporte de aatavou Bass [ MP ] 2 février Espaces de noms Article Discussion. La démocratie libérale avancée serait devenue le modèle universel et dominant, à imiter voire à adopter, y compris par la force, comme en témoignent les projets de démocratie dans le grand Moyen-Orient, inspirés par les néoconservateurs américains. Its most recent revision, passed by the Moroccan parliament in 2004, has been praised by human rights activists for its measures to address women's rights and gender equality within an Islamic legal framework.[2]. Different sources cite varying accounts as to how many people attended each rally, with estimates ranging from 60,000 to over 1 million at each - with each side claiming it had more attendees present. 19 septembre 2020; Charlie 5 ans après : où sont les bien-pensants ? 9 June 2009. [11], Many groups and individuals (both in Morocco and abroad) reacted favorably to the revised code, pointing out that from an economic perspective, it finally legally recognized women's economic contributions to the household – not an insignificant point, as in 2000, women represented over a third of the Moroccan workforce. Souss Sahara Atlantique Voyage.Le Portugal, premier pays européen à recevoir le label “Safe Travels”. [27] The argument that follows is that the reforms are essentially superficial because it is in the government's interest to favor the maintenance of the status quo over the potential conflict that would arise were the reforms to be implemented on a full scale. Malik ibn Anas, the founder of the Maliki school of Sunni Islam, wrote Al-Muwatta, which was an 8th-century collection of hadith, or sayings, of Muhammad, his family, and his companions. [17][18] Arising from this context, the PAIWD did not explicitly reference Islamic values, and was more closely related to a “development discourse” that formed a crucial element of Mohammad VI's national agenda. Considering the religious origin of the laws, the fact that they had been amended at all was a significant step in demonstrating that they were subject to the process of ijtihad and not completely unchangeable.[9]. Bran, Laurie A. Freedom House. Abingdon: Routledge, 2007. According to Fatima Outaleb, a member of the UAF, "The UAF was not dissatisfied with those reforms. [6] Ibid. جهرم، مردی شبیه به محمدرضاشاه پهلوی و مردی که می‌گوید: «شاه برگشته».‌‌ 25 J'ai déjà fait allusion, dans ce qui précède, au code de la famille du Maroc, la Moudawana. Morocco in Transition, Middle East Report 218 (Spring 2001). Many against the Moudawana reformation believed the UAF's campaign to be against the Islamic values traditionally held in Morocco. PDF. Code de la famille au Maroc - Moudawana Texte de loi relatif à la moudawana de la famille au Maroc. "Progressive or Conservative, Women Influence Islam." [3], Though the UAF and other women's groups were disappointed by the limited nature of the reforms, they still saw the new bill as a victory. Entretien avec Mohamed Saïd Saadi, ancien ministre En 1998, le gouvernement de l’alternance de Youssoufi avait donné le ton, dès le discours d’investiture et a fait de la question de la femme, une priorité. [7] Malchiodi, Beth. ", Malchiodi, Beth. This affiliation lends them a sense of legitimacy as well as connections and support, but some argue that it limits their autonomy as well. King Mohammed VI, whose reign began in 1999 after the death of his father, was much more sympathetic to their cause than King Hassan II had been; in fact, when he ascended the throne, King Mohammad VI promised in a nationally televised speech that he would work to improve Morocco's human rights record. [27] Ibid. [9] Likewise, the European Union considered Morocco to be the “most advanced country on the southern shore of the Mediterranean” in terms of rule of law and democratization. The Moroccan women's movement has been a product of the recent history of society since the pre-colonial period. [21] Levinson; Zvan. World Report 2010. Levinson, Charles. A man's daughter's children as well as his son's children have the right to inherit property. Originally based on the Maliki school of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, it was codified after the country gained independence from France in 1956. [19], However, there is some evidence that the reforms are not totally without effect. This process also arguably reduces Islamic women to a single, universal category that does not recognize their individual choices. A man may not repudiate his wife without the permission of a judge, and she and her children must be accorded their full rights under the law. Traditionalists felt only the king had the right to change the law and the modernists felt that the king had the right to exercise ijtihad and ultimately decide the role that Islamic law would play in Morocco's legal framework. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 2008. ", Slymovics, Susan. "Assessing the Impact of the 2004 Moudawana on Women's Rights in Morocco." [9] For her membership in an illegal Marxist group known as "March 23", Jbabdi was imprisoned from 1977 until her trial and release in 1980. [29], Women and civil society: foundations of reform, Number One (2008), film by: Zakia Tahri production of: CCM Film Institute, Made In Morocco Film, SNRT, Soread-2M, List of parenting issues affecting separated parents, Royal Advisory Council for Saharan Affairs, "Liberal Outcomes through Undemocratic Means: The Reform of the Code de status personnel in Morocco", "Political Authority in Crisis: Mohammad VI's Morocco", "Women's Learning Partnership: Family Law", "The Moroccan Family Code (Moudawana): An unofficial English translation of the original Arabic text", "The Status of Women in the Middle East and North Africa Project: Focus on Morocco: Opinions on the Family Law and Gender Quotas - Topic Brief", "International NGO Releases Survey Findings on Women's Political Standing in Morocco", "Morocco's Imperfect Remedy for Gender Equality", "More marriage, less divorce attributed to new Moroccan family code", Full text of the code from the Human Rights Education Association, Feature on the Mudawana by Professor Mounira Charrad for the International Museum of Women, Essay about feminism and women's organizations in Morocco, UNDP profile on gender dynamics in Morocco, Global Rights (NGO) page about Morocco, including links to Mudawana resources, Women's Learning Partnership (NGO) page about Morocco, including links to Mudawana resources, New York Times article about the Mudawana, five years after the reforms, Article from Magharebia about the Mudawana, five years after the reforms, Index of online Mudawana resources from Friends of Morocco, A www.resetdoc.org interview with Nouzha Guessous member of the Moudawana commission, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mudawana&oldid=988608833, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Both spouses share responsibility for the family; “women are men’s sisters before the law.”. Une décennie après son adoption par le Parlement marocain, le nouveau Code de la famille (Moudawana) a consacré l’égalité entre les. This unofficial English translation of the 2004 Moroccan Family Law (Moudawana) was prepared by a team of English and Arabic speaking lawyers and a professional Arabic-English Moroccan translator at the Global Rights head Office in Washington and their field Office in Morocco. "Morocco: A Look At Women's Rights 5 Years After Reforms." [2] He ordered that a new code be drafted in consultation with some women's groups, to be submitted to him for approval. The group of activists fighting to reform the Moudawana needed to persuade the Moroccan Parliament to change the family code in order to make it more equitable toward women. The Legal System of Morocco . 9hab Maroc 2011 - Metacafe (lahwa 9hab) zouk dial lahwa is located in Tanger. [9][11] This move demonstrated significant political support behind the idea of reform, and framed the issue more as one of politics and human rights than religion (indicated in part by the delivery of the petition to the prime minister, the nominal head of the government, as opposed to the king of Morocco, who is also a spiritual leader). Infos région. فردی که #آپارات را تاسیس کرده بود خود اعتراف کرده بود آپارات نان #فیلترینگ یوتیوب را می‌خ…, نقض آزادی وکلای دادگستری در فضای مجازی New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. "More Marriage, Less Divorce Attributed to New Moroccan Family Code." 2009. La Moudawana ou Code du statut personnel marocain est le droit de la famille marocain codifié en 1958 sous le règne du roi Mohammed V.Ce code a été amendé une première fois en 1993 par Hassan II, puis révisé en février 2004 par le Parlement marocain et promulgué par le roi Mohammed VI le 10 octobre 2004.Cette dernière révision améliore entre autres les droits des femmes La conférence internationale de Marrakech sur la Justice se tiendra les 21 et 22 octobre. Morocco made a landmark reform to its family code (moudawana) in 2004; it is only the second Arab country (after Tunisia) to have introduced such progressive measures for women.Led by their own vigorous movement and supported by the king, women won greater equality – notably the right to marry without the permission of a male family member and to initiate divorce on a fairer basis. Copyright © 2020 E-Collaborative for Civic Education. If you do not have access to Google Play download the Android APK file below ( Android 4.2.2 and higher). On March 5, 2001, a year after the rallies in Casablanca and Rabat, Mohammed VI announced the formation of a commission to reform the Mudawana, members of which included a Supreme Court justice, religious scholars, political representatives, and intellectuals from a number of different backgrounds, including female representatives from women's organizations. Human Rights Watch. Abiad, Nisrine. Civil Society and Political Change in Morocco. 2001. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad. [23] Zvan. [11] The events were not without controversy, however, generating both a counter-petition as well as a fatwa directed against the women's demands. To gain support from the NGO community, the UAF organized media seminars and conferences for a variety of national and international women's and human rights organizations. Malchiodi, Beth. [9][26] Judges also retain the right to oversee mandatory reconciliation in the case of divorce, which many women's organizations fear will be used to limit women's autonomy during divorce proceedings. La Moudawana et la polygamie. [6] Many argue that the electoral system's main function is to serve as a means for the monarchy to create and manipulate a dependent class of political elites. Sharia, Muslim States, and International Human Rights Treaty Obligations. At the same time, the king took several steps viewed as promoting women's status in Moroccan society, including mandating that 10 percent of seats in the lower house of the Moroccan parliament be reserved for women and promoting several women to senior administrative positions within his government. La Moudawana, le nouveau droit de la famille au Maroc PDF By:Omar Mounir Published on 2005 by Marsam Editions. Abingdon: Routledge, 2007. Lors de l'élaboration de la loi, en 1957, certains savants s'étaient. This included the founding of many new women's associations, many of which began as affiliates of existing political parties. Initially, the UAF and its reformist allies adopted a strictly secular agenda. Le Conseil de la communauté marocaine à l’étranger (CCME) a organisé, vendredi 14 février 2020, une table-ronde sur le thème « médias et nouvelles technologies : construire une image réelle du Maroc à l’étranger ». The king also cited his role as “Commander of the Faithful,” referring to his role as both political and religious leader of Morocco, and pointed out that as such, “I can neither prohibit what is legal nor sanction that which is illicit.” When announcing the reforms, the king emphasized their compatibility with Islamic principles, quoting supporting passages from the Qur'an and the Hadith. Octobre 21, 2012. "Assessing the Impact of the 2004 Moudawana on Women's Rights in Morocco." Faculty of Oriental Studies: University of Oxford. La polygamie dans la Moudawana marocaine : un numéro de haute voltige. "This Time I Choose When to Leave: An Interview with Fatna El-Bouih." Tous les ans, un millier de mariages polygames sont célébrés. For example, a woman still needs her husband's permission to obtain a passport and can be penalized for having a child out of wedlock, and there is no legislation addressing or criminalizing violence against women. Zvan, Katja. [13], In 1991, this was manifested in concrete political action as l’Union de l’Action Féminine (UAF), a women's group within one of Morocco's Marxist–Leninist political parties and consisting mainly of professional, middle class women, collected one million signatures on a petition calling for Mudawana reform and presented it to the Prime Minister. Ministere des Habous et des affaires islamiques - Rabat - Maroc Tel: (212) 5 37 76 68 51 - (212) 5 37 76 68 01 - Rabat - Maroc Tel: (212) 5 37 76 68 51 - (212) 5 37 76 68 01 Des Marocaines de la diaspora donnent leur avis sur la révision de la Moudawana Par Mohamed Chakir Alaoui et Yassine Benmini le 14/10/2020 à 16h13 (mise à jour le 14/10/2020 à 20h38) [18] Slymovics. "A New Family Law in Morocco." The revision of the Family Code (Moudawana) in Morocco in 2004 represents the main advance in women’s rights. [34] However, since more than half of the female population was illiterate at the time when these newspapers developed, there was a need for other forms of outreach, ones with a more widespread impact for building support across the country. 19 novembre 2020 à 18 h 47 Safi: un détenu condamné pour terrorisme met fin à ses jours; 19 novembre 2020 à 18 h 27 Maroc/Covid-19: 77 nouveaux décès, dont 25 à Casablanca; 19 novembre 2020 à 17 h 32 Ben Abdelkader répond favorablement aux demandes de certaines fonctionnaires; 19 novembre 2020 à 15 h 45 Covid-19: l’Oriental inquiète ! … Le Code Marocain de la Famille « Moudawana » Communiqué de Presse, Droits des Femmes et Justice de Genre, Maroc / Sahara Occidental. Yet the Moudawana, the family code that governs areas of family law such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, and child custody, gave few rights to women when it was first adopted in 1958, reflecting centuries-old customs. Development, in many cases includes a process of securing access to rights, and their enforcement, whereas the existence of rights enhances development processes. [6] Other problems with the judicial system include a lack of training among the judiciary and provisions of the law that allow individual judges to consult principles of Shari'a in situations that are not covered by the Mudawana. The UAF was opposed by the ulama, Islamic scholars and arbiters of religious law, as well as other religious groups that supported the existing Moudawana as a religious text. This sparked fierce debate and opposition within Moroccan political elites and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Moroccan society, and culminated in two rallies in Casablanca and Rabat in March 2000 – one in support of reform and one in opposition to it. A women's rights group known as the Women's Action Union, the Union de l'Action Feminine in French (UAF), and its allies wanted to reform these unjust laws and secure equal rights for women under the family code, thus catalyzing the Moudawana reform movement. [9] In response, King Hassan II created a commission (which he chaired) composed of 21 religious scholars – only one of them female – and a representative of the Royal Court for the purpose of reforming the Mudawana according to the Islamic tradition of ijtihad. zouk dial lahwa - Tanger on the map. 3) Cooperative-building grows from empowerment gained during the “Imagine-Moudawana” experience and supports women’s cooperatives and their development to create greater financial independence, expand networks, and promote change in women’s roles in their communities. [9] Without this license, an association will have difficulty securing funding and has no right to recourse within the Moroccan justice system. [19] "Country Report: Morocco." [26] Ibid. [36] Robinson. May 2007. ALIMAROC ADDICT est un Blog pour les acheteurs Marocain. [11] In particular, the Moroccan minister for religious affairs opposed the plan, and the Moroccan cabinet became divided over the issue. Join us for in Rabat, Marrakech, and the Atlas Mountains April 19-25, 2020. [9], There are social, legal, logistical, and political barriers to the actual implementation of many of the reforms in the new Mudawana. Under the law, men could unilaterally divorce their wives while women's right to divorce was highly restricted; women could not marry without legal approval from a guardian or tutor; married women were obliged by law to obey their husbands; and men could marry multiple women without their wives' consent.[1]. او از پیشگامان جنبش نرم‌افزار آزاد است. "The Politics of the Reform of the New Family Law (the Moudawana)." ‌ Tous les ans, un millier de mariages polygames sont célébrés. « La Moudawana, que nous avons considéré comme un acquis en 2004, n’est plus d’actualité aujourd’hui. After the reforms were announced, the United States government, the World Bank, and Human Rights Watch all released statements of support for the new laws. Finally, the number of women arranging their own marriages increased by over 14% between 2006 and 2007. [35] Ghazalla. verabschiedet und hat sowohl positive als auch negative Reaktionen hervorgerufen. In 1992, they launched the One Million Signatures campaign, which aimed to gather a million signatures on a petition to reform the Moudawana. [29] Ibid. Comme indiqué au … "Assessing the Impact of the 2004 Moudawana on Women's Rights in Morocco. 19 Dec. 2003.; Abiad, Nisrine. Though personally committed to secularism, Jbabdi studied the Koran and the Hadith in order to incorporate religious justifications into her message, realizing that most Moroccans were reluctant to take a completely secular approach to the law. [8] Some have argued that the king's support was motivated as much by international pressures and his desire to join the European Union as domestic economic and political problems. "This Time I Choose When to Leave: An Interview with Fatna El-Bouih. [6], Some have described the women's rights movement in Morocco as a movement of elites and criticized the new Mudawana on similar grounds. En 2004, sous le regard satisfait de la communauté internationale, le Maroc adoptait un nouveau code de la famille consacrant une certaine égalité hommes-femmes, et rendant plus difficile la pratique de la polygamie.Le Parlement marocain approuvait, sans grandes différences entre les partis politiques, la réforme du code de la famille, la Moud [16] Armed with the canons of Islam, Jbabdi could engage with opponents who said that the reforms contradicted Islam, successfully arguing that some interpretations of the religious texts supported equality for women. [20] Many supporters of the reforms believe that lack of awareness of the law is the primary barrier to its implementation, with a lack of legal literacy compounded by the fact that many Moroccans speak a Berber dialect rather than the formal Arabic in which the law is actually written. Ouarzazate Le tourisme dans la région Drâa Tafilalet est face à un nouveau départ. [9] However, some scholars have argued that just because the movement was started among elites, it does not necessarily follow that they are incongruent with grassroots interests. All rights reserved. Faculty of Oriental Studies: University of Oxford. [30], The UAF reached out to and worked with many other organizations and groups of people to achieve the reforms; alliances with other women's rights NGOs, political parties, independent politicians, social workers, and academics enabled the UAF to succeed in its mission. Moudawana: L'Union de l'action féministe appelle à réviser le code de la famille dans sa globalité 19 février 2018 - 06:57. Les mouvements féministes au Maroc ont compris qu'ils ne pouvaient imposer un féminisme laïc même si le combat à la base est fort similaire (en gros le féminisme actuel dans le monde arabe correspond aux deux premières vagues du féminisme du 19e et 20e siècle en Europe Occidental et en Europe Occidental avec le mouvement metoo on en est à la 4ème vague), on ne peut nier le … l'adoul risque lui … Souss Sahara Atlantique Groupement des CRTs et CNT : 2 têtes pour un seul corps ?. This Book was ranked at 16 by Google Books for keyword administration des soins de santé à l'étranger.. Book ID of La Moudawana, le nouveau droit de la famille au Maroc's Books is rSkJDuzIeF0C, Book which was written byOmar Mounirhave ETAG "AgzP2zTAVXY" The new code was submitted for approval and passed into law by the Parliament in 2004, drastically changing the landscape of family law in Morocco and beyond. Moudawana .. Latifa Jbabdi (born 1955) is a Moroccan feminist activist and writer. Refworld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. [24], Opponents to the law assert that the reforms represent an imposition of legislation that does not enjoy broad support, pointing out that opinion polls often favor urban populations and are not representative of Moroccan society as a whole. PDF. This occurred shortly after Mohammad VI succeeded his father as King, and within a year of the rallies, he announced the formation of a commission to further reform the Mudawana.